Promoting Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction in Nepal

Promoting Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction in Nepal
  • Project Area: Promoting Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction in Nepal
  • Project Duration: 2018-12-01 to 2021-02-28
  • Donor: Promoting Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction in Nepal

Promoting Disability-inclusive  Disaster Risk Reduction in Nepal has been running in financial and technical support from Arbeiter Samariter Bund known as ASB and implemented by READ Nepal since December 2018. The project has been implemented in four districts Dolakha-Nuwakot-Dang and Chitwan in partnership with Gaurishnakar Community Library and Resource Center at Dolakha-Shree Janjagran CLRC Nuwakot-Gardi CLRC MadiChitwan and Deukhuri CLRC Gadhawa Dang.


The Project has been following the twin track-approach which has been emphasizing the importance of specific interventions for persons with disabilities in all the Disaster Risk Reduction initiatives through READ Nepal and Community Libraries and Resource Centers. The twin-track approach is informed by the social model of disability and requires us to consider both the person with disabilities and the society in which they live. The DRR approach will also focus on the inclusion of women, children, men who are most marginalized, people with disabilities most likely to live in poverty, and who face the highest disaster risk. These most-at-risk groups will be consulted, involved, and empowered to participate and enable to contribute.  The program’s objective is to enhance the resilience of disaster-prone communities by building their capacity to resist, absorb, respond to and recover from the effects of disasters in a timely and efficient manner considering the needs of all community members. Following approaches will be carried out by community libraries to increase community resilience:

Awareness and education:  Community awareness and education on DRR is an ongoing process in which the community acquires knowledge about roles, responsibilities, and expectations for individual preparedness as well as the ways in which individuals can work collectively with other community members to respond to and recover from any disaster.

Partnership: Greater integration of organizations can increase trust and knowledge among community members and help maximize participation in emergency preparedness activities, thus contributing to the ability of communities to enhance plans and speed recovery. Community libraries will work in partnership with different stakeholders (government, nongovernment, DPOs, etc) like, Ward office, Municipality from Local government, DPOs, district chapter office of National Federation of Disabled Nepal, Disaster Management Committee, and Red Cross Society, etc.

Community engagement: Community engagement entails the active participation of the community in response and recovery planning, to ensure that plans reflect the views and perspectives of a wide range of DRR stakeholders, particularly those representing populations who are at risk because of functional limitations and other social reasons. The community library leadership team will ensure a broad base of engagement among community members and local organizations supports greater situational awareness and coordination during the response and recovery phases of a disaster.

Self-reliance:  Community libraries will help the individuals and households to be prepared for a disaster as individuals on the scene are the true “first responders” to any disaster-related incident. Increasing the capacity of individuals, communities, or institutions to become more self-reliant.

The objective of the project

  1. Disaster Risk Management and inclusion mainstreamed within READ Nepal’s policies and programming
    • Review/editing of existing policies and programmatic documents in order to reflect READ Nepal’s approach towards DRM and inclusion.
    • Development of strategy/action plan to put DRM and inclusion commitments into practice (with consideration of experiences/learning’s from the previous projects).
    • Development of designs for hazard resistant accessible library buildings
    • Strategy to increase the accessibility of services provided by CRCs
    • Strategy to further mainstream DRM into community outreach work of CLRCs
    • Capacity Building of READ Nepal staff to put the strategy into practice
    • Exposure visit
    • Training/ workshop
  2. 4 CLRCs capacitated to support community-level resilience building with particular attention on aspects of DRM and inclusion


    • Socialization of program and its objectives amongst CLRCs
    • Refresher-trainings for DRR Sub-Committees in Dolakha / Nuwakot
    • Establishment and training of DRR Sub-Committees in 2 new CLRCs (involvement of persons with disabilities/DPO members)
    • Formation of DiDRRsub committee in 2 new CLRCs
    • Conduct TOT for youth and teachers on DiDRR
    • Mobilize youth to make a household level preparedness plan
    • Conduct regular DiDRR related interaction program in community and school
    • Capacity Building Training to library staff and the person with disabilities/family members/FCHV and READ field staff on basic sign language
    • Establishment of DiDRR corner with DRR related rescue materials
    • Linking of two model libraries with 2 “new” libraries (including exposure/learning visit)
    • Accessibility audit in 2 new CLRCs
    • Develop a strategy to overcome barriers to inclusion/ensure accessibility of buildings and services (based on READ’s overall strategy)
    • Practical implementation of small measures improving accessibility of library buildings
    • Mainstreaming of Disability and DRM related contents into the education and outreach work of CLRCs (PANs program, community engagement/awareness programs), livelihoods training with a focus on persons with disabilities
    • Creation and management of emergency Fund.
    • Paper Theatre session on school and local community
    • Street Drama
    • Livelihood related training for persons with disabilities
    • Local coordination to get assistive devices and access services available for a person with a disability (e.g.: disability card, crutches, earphones etc.)
    • Session on disability rights for persons with disabilities
    • Baseline assessment of catchment area in terms of DiDRR and identify a person with disabilities within the coverage area (snowball sampling method - community survey) and assess functional needs.
  3. Disaster Risk Management and inclusion mainstreamed within READ Nepal’s policies and programming

    • Mapping of key DRM stakeholders in communities including representatives of persons with disabilities
    • Formation/strengthening of inclusive community level DRM structures (in collaboration with local government)
    • Establishment of DRM related coordination mechanism at community level including CLRCs, schools, community learning centers, representatives of at-risk groups
    • Capacity building for Persons with disabilities/DPO members in the fields of DiDRR, advocacy
    • Development or revision of DRM related planning documents at the community level (e.g. risk maps, contingency plans) with particular focus on inclusion of at-risk groups
    • Provision of needs-based training to DRM stakeholders at the community level (e.g. first aid, rescue, etc.)
    • DiDRR orientation for the wider community and implementation of evacuation drills (in collaboration with DRM stakeholders at the community level)



Through the project intervention and based on the demand of the community people four library buildings have been constructed with accessible infrastructures. The Gaurishankar CLRC Dolakha and Shree Janjagran CLRC Nuwakot first and the second floor are fully accessible for persons with disabilities. Following the accessibility audit criteria and indicators provisions of RAMP and tactile has been kept in all sections of the libraries. Altogether in Gardi CLRC Madi Chitwan and  Deukhuri CLRC Gadhawa Dang has been constructed the ground floor accessible for persons with disabilities.

Establishment of DiDRR corner with DRR related resource and rescue materials

DiDRR Corner has been established in Gardi and Deukhuri CLRC where equipment like Fire Extinguishers, Walker, Digital Blood Pressure Monitor, Set Weight Scale, Hot Bag, Hearing aid, White cane, Helmet and resource materials, wheelchairs, stretchers, etc. Including that all these materials are also available at the DiDRR Corner of Gaurishnakar CLRC Dolakha and Shree Janjagran CLRC Nuwakot. These materials have been using in the library as a means for disaster information sharing and increasing the knowledge of library visitors about the disability-inclusive disaster preparedness initiatives.

List of Search/Rescue materials

Half jacket

Working gloves

Safety boots (gum boot)


Wire cutter

Pry bar

Life Jacket

Safety helmet

Head lamp

Head lamp



Rescue rope

Hazard Tape/Scene Tape






Hack saw

Safety vest

Safety Guggles


Steel Bucket

Wheel Chair

White cane

Mini can


List of First Aid materials

Triangular Bandage

Roller Bandage

Scissor 5"



Creep Bandage (Ever)

Dot pen

Roller Bandage

Sterilize Gauge Pad

Safety (hook) pin



Thermometer (Doctor)

FA Bag

Rollar Bandage

Forceps 5"

Beta dine

Gloves (Sterilized)

Adhesive Tape(Doctor)

Note book



In four districts (Dolakha-Nuwakot-Dang-Chitwan) the project assisted the LDCRC and  Ward Disaster and Climate Resilient Committee(WDCRC) for the disability-inclusive Vulnerability Capacity Assessment. As a result in joint collaboration with the local government 9 wards of the 3 municipalities and 1 Rural Municipality practiced the participatory vulnerability capacity assessment. Before the assessment, municipality level coordination and approval process were done. Through the assessment most at-risk community people of the wards identified and prioritized the hazards following tools like Historical Time Line Analysis, Hazard Ranking, Hazard and Social Map, Comparative seasonal calendar, hazard calendar, botanical and crops calendar, problem tree analysis, etc. Through the assessment in the entire wards hazard like a flood, fire, landslides, wild beast attacks, etc. have been ranked major hazards. Likewise, the community people identified the community level capacities like availability of trained task forces (First Aid/Search and Rescue/Pre Information/Gender equality and Protection, Damage and Need Assessment) local-level public infrastructures,Schools, Disability-inclusive routes, Safe evacuation routes, partner responders of the persons with disabilities, Early Warning System, Safe evacuation places, emergency contact persons, sign language interpreters, and trained human resources etc.



There are nine WDCRC –Ward Disaster and Climate Resilient Committee formed and reformed in technical coordination of the project with the Local Disaster and Climate Resilient Committee as per the new Disaster and Risk Management Act 2074 in Gaurishankar Municipality Dolakha- Belkpt Gadhi Municipality Nuwakot-Gardi Municipality Chitwan-Gadhawa Rural Municipality Dang. After the formation. reformation the committees were oriented about their (R3) rights, roles, and responsibilities of the earth’s while formulated committee. The Committee members were oriented about the approaches of finding most vulnerable in the community through using the VCA tools, how the committee can make people's life more resilient by making a community-level disaster preparedness plans, integration of disaster preparedness plan in their local level participatory planning process etc.




Following the” Community First-Community First Responders” to mitigate the risk of Disasters, a total of 100 hundred first responders were trained upon first aid/search and rescue techniques. The responders were graduated with the concept of disability-inclusive first aid and search and rescue methods. In the four districts (Dolakha-Nuwakot-Dang-Chitwan) 100 first responders representing the high-risk communities Were trained upon the concept of Basic First Aid and its principles, the importance of first aids its practical steps, the meaning of CPR and its importance, points to remember prior to giving CPR to children, pregnant women, elderly people, bleeding, Handling injured or burned state, Concept, Importance, and steps of search and rescue, What are SAR and its importance for in disaster risk reduction, the inclusion of disabled people in Disaster Risk Reduction, search and rescue during fire and importance of Core Humanitarian Standards. The training followed Core nine humanitarian standards and was also based on the Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction Training Manual Prepared by READ Nepal



60 Persons with Disabilities have been provided the livelihoods training. The training followed core humanitarian standards. The sessions were delivered following the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities,” Nothing about us without us”. For the disability-inclusive livelihoods training the methods like reasonable accommodation, easy to learn methods, sign language interpreters, training to partner responders were managed. The 60 people with disabilities were trained upon the local demands concepts of agriculture and livestock-based upon the queries collected through community-level orientation. Altogether community people of the four municipalities were oriented about the different methods of agriculture and livestock preparedness skills through practical and interactive sessions. The local level expert from the concerned municipality and government offices technically supported the facilitation of the interaction/practical session and life skill training.



READ Nepal initiated the structural and Non-Structural Mitigation measures in its offices and its concerned centers regarding the risks from multiple hazards. To technically find out the measures would be appropriate for different types of hazards one VAM-Vulnerability Accessibility Mapping has been completed. The key objectives were to access the most vulnerable part of READ Nepal office premises. All through the assessment(VAM), checklists were used as what would be the non-structural vulnerability e.g. doors conditions, book racks, ceiling fans, table, a wall of fame, gas cylinders, fire extinguishers etc. After the Non-Structural Vulnerability, Mapping READ adopted some mitigation measures as using angels/metal brackets, bed angels, screws in the office cupboards, book racks, whiteboards etc. Most importantly READ Nepal after this learning replicated this best practice provided orientation to Kalika and Tribhuwan CLRC Bardiya, Gyanodaya CLRC Kohalpur Banke, Gardi/Jhuwani/Dibya Jyoti CLRC Chitwan. The six CLRCs have been oriented about the Non-structural approaches/risks and their importance for Disaster Risk Reduction. In the orientation, there was a meaningful presence of LMC members. During the orientation, the LMC members were oriented about the Non-Structural Vulnerability Mapping approaches like, "Look Up-Look Down-Look Around" with what are the measures for non-structural mitigation in the library? What are the non-structural risks?


READ Nepal through its community’s libraries and resource centers at the local level providing training and orientation to school students about disaster risk reduction. To support and strengthen the school level disaster risk reduction and preparedness two types of interventions have been supported to school students of four districts. The first is PAPER THEATER SESSION- It is a paper theater method through which schoolchildren with disabilities from (1-5) grades were oriented about the different types of hazards in storytelling methods. It is facilitated by tanned local volunteers. Likewise, School Level Orientation On Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction is provided to school children from 6- 10 Grades. Key safety messages regarding the school level disasters commonly identified were delivered. Through its interventions READ Nepal has provided more than 36 School level Orientations and 36 Paper Theater sessions to School Students. Moore than 2000 students were oriented about the disaster preparedness initiatives for the community and at the school level.


100 Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction Graduates are ready at four districts(Dolakha-Nwaot-Dang-Chitwan). The one hundred community people were trained upon the concept of Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction. They got conceptual knowledge of what is disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction? How it is being integrated into the Disaster Risk Management cycle? What is the use of the Washington group of Short Sets of Questions of Persons with Disabilities? Importance of  Inclusion Must and use of Information and Action model for Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction. Enhancing the capacity of local responders has enabled the project to manage local level DRR trainers and experts in the areas of DiDRR. Most of the participants were from schools, the community, local DRM groups, Municipality focal person, DRM stakeholders.


The project has been supporting four municipalities of four districts with making nine Ward Level Disaster Risk Management Plan. The project assisted the local government with analyzing and conducting the risk assessment with disability inclusion lenses. The nine wards themselves identified the risk of community with persons with disabilities in the areas from natural hazards. The Ward Level DRM plan includes,” MOSSER Framework” for Disaster Risk Reduction. It has been analyzed the impact, short term and long term plan for disaster risk reduction and management before, during, and after the disaster with disability inclusion lenses. Altogether though the project initiation, nine DRM plan has been prepared.


Through,” Session on Disability Rights” “Celebration of International Day of Person with Disabilities” integration of persons with disabilities in the different forums and committees at local level, it was ensured that their meaningful representation has minimized the gaps for disability-inclusive quality service delivery. There are persons with disabilities members representing in the Local Level Planning Process of the government including making the DRM Plan, Local Level Plan, Budget discussion, Disability allowances, Social Protection Schemes, and interaction as appropriate for persons with disabilities in all the four municipalities of the four districts.


2126 Household Disaster Preparedness Plans have been prepared by the 40 communities of 9 Wards from 3 Municipalities and 1 Rural Municipality from Dolakha-Nuwakot-Dang-Chitwan District. The key objective of making HHs DPP is to analyze the Hazard of the HHS including inside and outside with mainstreaming disability-inclusive lens preparedness and response plans, vulnerable family members. For this, trained youths have been selected and oriented about the process for making the DPP. Following the objective, trained DiDRR youths facilitated the making of the HHS disaster preparedness plan altogether organizing a family meeting where all the available family members were informed and assembled at one point. The senior family members were mostly involved in providing information on this. The literate family members were highly encouraged to support in verifying and editing the information. Finally, the youth volunteers supported the making of preparedness plans with information like HHs description, disability information, hazards inside and outside the house, identification of responders like messages were collected and analyzed. In this level major, hazards were identified like Fire, Wild Beast Attack, Snake Bites, and Wind Storm and it was prepared by the HHS members and sanctioned or approved by the HHS Head or representative. A total of 3469 HHs members got to know about the conceptual framework of the HHS Disaster Preparedness Plan directly or indirectly.



As COVID 19 crisis underway, in the Dolakha district, it was becoming very difficult to assess and respond with COVID-19 in the absence of PPE. Since it was well known to other stakeholders that Gaurishankar CLRC has good networking and capacity for natural and non-natural disaster risk management. Thus after coordination, Gauri Shankar CLRC allocated NPR 200,000 from the library treasury for purchasing PPE (Medical Masks, Globes, Google's, Sanitizers, Soap.) At that time it was very difficult to get it from the local market due to lockdown. Thus the library mobilized its networking and became able to buy it from Kathmandu. After purchasing PPE Gaurishankar CLRC handed it to District Disaster Management Committee.

Likewise, Deukhuri CLRC localized ERP NPR 10000 has been donated to local level corona prevention committee for food relief item support to daily wage labor, the person with disabilities, and other vulnerable community members. 

The Gaurishankar CLRC supported PPE to Ward No 1, 2, 3 and Ward No.4 of Kakani Rural Municipality and Ward No 4 of Dhunibesi Municipality of Dhading District Ward level Corona Prevention Committee. These PPEs have been supported as a precautionary measures to cope with the pandemic. In the worst scenario, the Library coordinated with National Invention Centre, lions club, and District Administration Office.


Total 100 participants are trained including People with Disability (Deaf/Hard of Hearing) their partner responders, female community health volunteers, Nepal Police representatives, Ward office representatives, Municipality representatives got conceptual knowledge of more than 500 hundred signs/words used for communication with People with disability. They would be able to use it for the identification of the needs of people with disabilities before, during, and after the disaster. The trainees have been providing their services at local level Disaster Risk Reduction Initiations like helping in the VCA, Livelihoods training, and other relevant events.